The Science of Perm- Understanding How Hair Perming Lotions Work

  • By:BINGO
  • 2024-05-10
  • 5

The Science of Perm: Understanding How Hair Perming Lotions Work is a comprehensive guide that unravels the intricate chemical processes behind hair perming. This article will delve into the components and mechanisms of hair perming lotions, shedding light on the transformative effects they have on hair structure.

Perm Solution

Perm solutions are the core component of hair perming. They typically contain the following key ingredients:

Ammonium thioglycolate (ATG):

ATG is a reducing agent that breaks down the disulfide bonds within hair, making it pliable and moldable.

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH):

NaOH is an alkaline agent that swells the hair cuticle and enhances the penetration of ATG into the hair shaft.


Glycerine acts as a humectant, preventing hair from drying out during the perming process.

Perm Process

Hair perming involves a series of meticulously executed steps:

Sectioning and Winding:

Hair is sectioned and wrapped around perm rods to create the desired curls or waves.

Perm Solution Application:

The perm solution is applied to the hair, saturating it thoroughly.


The perm solution is left in place for a predetermined time, allowing the ATG to break down the disulfide bonds, making the hair flexible and receptive to reshaping.


After processing, a neutralizing solution is applied to the hair to stop the chemical reaction and restore the hair’s natural pH balance.

Chemical Reactions

The chemical reactions involved in hair perming are complex and involve the following steps:

Bond Breaking:

ATG breaks down the disulfide bonds, which are strong chemical links between cysteine amino acids in hair.

Hair Molding:

Once the disulfide bonds are broken, the hair becomes pliable and can be reshaped into curls or waves.

Bond Reformation:

After reshaping, the hair is treated with a neutralizing solution that allows new disulfide bonds to form, locking in the desired shape.

Factors Affecting Perm Results

The outcome of a hair perm is influenced by several factors:

Hair Type:

Hair structure, texture, and porosity affect the ability of the perm solution to penetrate and react with the hair.

Perm Solution Strength:

The concentration of ATG in the perm solution determines the intensity of the curl or wave.

Processing Time:

The duration of processing controls the extent of bond breaking and reshaping.


Thorough neutralization is essential to stop the chemical reaction and prevent hair damage.

  • 1
    Hey friend! Welcome! Got a minute to chat?
Online Service




    Bingo Cosmetic Manufacture Ltd.

    We are always providing our customers with reliable products and considerate services.

      If you would like to keep touch with us directly, please go to contact us